The article cites Robert Sampson's studies in various Chicago neighborhoods. He concluded that
Income levels did not necessarily explain the difference, Professor Sampson said, but rather the community’s cultural norms, the levels of moral cynicism and disorder.Cynicism and disorder, fear and mistrust - these are the things that create the dysfunctions of the culture of poverty.
I think fear and mistrust are what creates dysfunctions in any culture. Promoting fear undermines the functional elements of the culture of any class. Fear and mistrust are endemic in some poor neighborhoods. They are also endemic in some non-poor subcultures, not quite so geographic. Fear-promoting ideological subcultures create social dysfunction on a larger level.
The culture of poverty may only be the most concentrated form of the culture of fear.